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Terminology - CD Terms

CD Replication, CD Replication Service, CD Mastering.

access time - The time it takes for a drive to access a data track and begin transferring data. In an optical jukebox playing an audio cd, the time it takes to locate a specific disk, insert it in an optical drive, and begin transferring data to the host system.
AES - Audio Engineering Society.
audio cd - can contain up to 80 minutes of audio.
Blue Book - The document that specifies the CD Extra interactive music CD format. The original CDV specification was also in a blue book.
buffer under-run - If your CD-R/CD-RW is interrupted when writing data, a gap is left on the CD, and this makes it unreadable. To reduce the chance of this occuring, CDs write from an internal buffer of around 4Mb. If you insist on playing Quake III while writing CDs, though, the buffer may run dry, and the CD will be unuseable, so it's best to close down all applications and leave your PC alone until the CD writer has finished.
burn - Slang term meaning to write data to a CD-ROM or DVD-ROM, or to make cd copies through cd duplication.
Burner - a device used to make cd copies one at a time.
CD - Short for compact disc, an optical disc developed to store multiple data formats such as music, data and software applications. CD is generally the term used to describe a disc that has been replicated (not duplicated or burned).
CD+G - Compact disc plus graphics. A variation of CD which embeds graphical data in with the audio data, allowing video pictures to be displayed periodically as music is played. Primarily used for karaoke.
CD-DA - Compact disc digital audio. The original music CD format, storing audio information as digital PCM data. Defined by the Red Book standard.
CD-i - Compact disc interactive. An extension of the CD format designed around a set-top computer that connects to a TV to provide interactive home entertainment, including digital audio and video, video games, and software applications. Defined by the Green Book standard.
CD-Plus - A type of Enhanced CD format using stamped multisession technology.
cd-r - a writable cd that you can copy to using a burner. Cd-r is the preferred media format for cd duplication.
CD-R drive - Short for Compact Disk-Recordable drive, this type of disc drive can be used to create or duplicate CD-ROMs and audio CDs. CD-R drives can also read CD-ROMs and play audio CDs.
CD-ROM - Abbreviation for Compact Disc-Read-Only Memory, it is a type of optical disks that commonly stores 650-750 megabytes. CD-ROMs are well suited to information that requires large storage capacity and can be used to present such information as video, audio, interactive media and electronic data files.. All CD-ROMs conform to a standard size and format, and can be read by most CD-ROM players.
CD-ROM player - Often referred to as a CD-ROM drive, this device is used to read information from a CD-ROM. CD-ROM players have several distinguishing features, with probably the most important being their speed, denoted by __X. Other features are the drive's access time (how long it takes the drive to access a particular piece of information) and data transfer rate (how much data can be read and sent to the computer in a second).
CD-RW disc - CD-RW stands for CD-ReWritable, which allows this type of disc to be written and rewritten onto like a floppy or hard drive. CD-R (recordable) discs on the other hand can be written onto only once. Generally, CD-RW discs created by a CD-RW drive can only be read by a CD-RW drive.
CDV - A combination of laserdisc and CD which places a section of CD-format audio on the beginning of the disc and a section of laserdisc-format video on the remainder of the disc.
cDVD - DVD-Video content stored on a CD (or CD-R/RW). Also called mini DVD. Most consumer DVD players can't play a cDVD.
clamping area - The area near the inner hole of a disc where the drive grips the disc in order to spin it.
Close session When you've finished creating a CD, your software must carry out a Close session, which involves writing the lead-in and lead-out areas of the disc. You won't be able to read the CD in a normal CD-ROM drive until the Close session process has occured.
CLV - Constant linear velocity. Refers to a rotating disc system in which the head moves over the disc surface at a constant velocity, requiring that the motor vary the rotation speed as the head travels in and out. The further the head is from the center of the disc, the slower the rotation. The advantage of CLV is that data density remains constant, optimizing use of the surface area. Contrast with CAV and ZCLV.
Codec Short for "compressor/decompressor", codec is any technology for compressing and decompressing data. Popular codecs for computer video include MPEG (also a file format), Indeo and Cinepak.
combo drive - A DVD-ROM drive capable of reading and writing CD-R and CD-RW media. May also refer to a DVD-R or DVD-RW or DVD+RW drive with the same capability. (Also see RAMbo).
Compact Disc - A compact disc, also known as CD, is a polycarbonate with one or more metal layers capable of storing digital information. The most prevalent types of CDs are music cds by the music industry that usually replicated cds as well as CD-ROMs used to store computer data.
DAE - Digital audio extraction. Reading digital audio data directly from a CD audio disc.
Digital audio extraction Copying CD-DA tracks digitally from your CD drive to your hard drive or to a CD-R.
directory - The part of a disc that indicates what files are stored on the disc and where they are located.
Disc-at-once - A method commonly used to write an audio CD, where (as you might guess) the CD mastering software writes all the track data at once.
double sided dual disc = dvd-5 & cd glued together.
DSVCD - Double Super Video Compact Disc. Long-playing (100-minute) variation of SVCD.
DVCD - Double Video Compact Disc. Long-playing (100-minute) variation of VCD.
duplication - The reproduction of media. Duplication generally refers to producing discs in small quantities, such as burning cds, as opposed to large run cd replication.
dye polymer - The chemical used in DVD-R and CD-R media that darkens when heated by a high-power laser.
dye-sublimation - Optical disc recording technology that uses a high-powered laser to burn readable marks into a layer of organic dye. Other recording formats include magneto-optical and phase-change.
dynamic range - The difference between the loudest and softest sound in an audio signal. The dynamic range of digital audio is determined by the sample size. Increasing the sample size does not allow louder sounds; it increases the resolution of the signal, thus allowing softer sounds to be separated from the noise floor (and allowing more amplification with less distortion). Dynamic range refers to the difference between the maximum level of distortion-free signal and the minimum limit reproducible by the equipment.
EFM - Eight-to-fourteen modulation. A modulation method used by CD, where eight data bits are represented by 14 channel bits. The 8/16 modulation used by DVD is sometimes called EFM plus.
Enhanced CD - A general term for various techniques that add computer software to a music CD, producing a disc which can be played in a music player or read by a computer. Also called CD Extra, CD Plus, hybrid CD, interactive music CD, mixed-mode CD, pre-gap CD, or track-zero CD.
father - The metal master disc formed by electroplating the glass master. The father disc is used to make mother discs, from which multiple stampers (sons) can be made.
file system - A defined way of storing files, directories, and information about them on a data storage device.
file - A collection of data stored on a disc, usually in groups of sectors.
gray market - Dealers and distributors who sell equipment without proper authorization from the manufacturer.
Green Book - The document developed in 1987 by Philips and Sony as an extension to CD-ROM XA for the CD-i system. 
Gui - graphic user interface helps the user find and navigate through the information presented.
HDCD - High-definition Compatible Digital. A proprietary method of enhancing audio on CDs.
HQ-VCD - High-quality Video Compact Disc. Developed by the Video CD Consortium (Philips, Sony, Matsushita and JVC) as a successor to VCD. Evolved into SVCD.
hybrid cd - a cd capable of playing on both macs and pcs.
interactive media - the general term used to describe an interactive presentation. this may include video, audio, and animations that are contained with in a gui to help the user navigate the information. industry standard applications are used to build interactive multimedia presentations.
ISO 9660 - The international standard for the file system used by CD-ROM. Allows filenames of only 8 characters plus a 3-character extension.
ISO - International Organization for Standardization.
Jewel case - The plastic case in which CDs are normally stored. These have been specially designed to always shatter when you drop them, thus forcing you to buy more.
Lead-In - The first part of a session, which contains a table of contents defining what the disc contains.
Lead-out - The closing part of a session.
master - The metal master disc used to stamp replicas of CDs in large run cd replication.
mastering – the creation of a glass master in cd mastering for the purpose of cd replication.
memory - Data storage used by computers or other digital electronics systems. Read-only memory (ROM) permanently stores data or software program instructions. New data cannot be written to ROM. Random-access memory (RAM) temporarily stores data—including digital audio and video—while it is being manipulated, and holds software application programs while they are being executed. Data can be read from and written to RAM. Other long-term memory includes hard disks, floppy disks, digital CD formats (CD-ROM, CD-R, and CD-RW), and DVD formats (DVD-ROM, DVD-R, and DVD-RAM).
mixed mode - A type of CD containing both Red Book audio and Yellow Book computer data tracks.
Motion-JPEG - This is an extension of JPEG, which is a standard for storing and compressing digital images. In motion-JPEG, each frame in the video is stored with the JPEG format.
MP3 - MPEG-1 Layer III audio. A perceptual audio coding algorithm. Not supported in DVD-Video or DVD-Audio formats.
Orange Book - The document begun in 1990 which specifies the format of recordable CD. Three parts define magneto-optical erasable (MO) and write-once (WO), dye-sublimation write-once (CD-R), and phase-change rewritable (CD-RW) discs. Orange Book added multisession capabilities to the CD-ROM XA format.
Packet writing - Packet writing software packages like Adaptec's DirectCD allow you to drag and drop files onto your CD-R or CD-RW discs, just like any other drive on your computer.
pit - The depressed area of an optical disc.
QCIF - Quarter common intermediate format. Video resolution of 176 x 144.
QuickTime - A digital video software standard developed by Apple Computer for Macintosh (Mac OS) and Windows operating systems. QuickTime is used to support audio and video from a CD/DVD.
QuickTime VR An enhanced version of the QuickTime standard developed by Apple Computer Inc. to display multimedia content on computers. This enhancement adds the ability to display and rotate objects in three dimensions. Assets for Quicktime VR can originate from computer-generated 3D artwork or a series of adjoining photographs stitched together. QuickTime VR can be played back on both Macintosh computers and PCs.
RAMbo drive - A DVD-RAM drive capable of reading and writing CD-R and CD-RW media. (A play on the word “combo.”)
Red Book - The document first published in 1982 that specifies the original compact disc digital audio format developed by Philips and Sony.
replication - The reproduction of media such as cds, optical discs by stamping (contrast with cd duplication) generally used in terms of large run cd replication.
ROM - Read-only memory.
SCSI Small Computer System Interface, a speedy means of connecting devices to your computer. You won't be able to use a SCSI CD writer unless you first install a suitable controller card first.
seek time - The time it takes for the head in a drive to move to a data track.
Session Information is stored on CDs in the form of a session. This consists of a Lead-in area, the data itself, then a Lead-out. Standard CD-Rs only contain a single session, but CD-RW drives now make it possible to create multi-session CDs.
SFF 8090 - Specification number 8090 of the Small Form Factor Committee, an ad hoc group formed to promptly address disk industry needs and to develop recommendations to be passed on to standards organizations. SFF 8090 (also known as the Mt. Fuji specification), defines a command set for CD-ROM– and DVD-ROM–type devices, including implementation notes for ATAPI and SCSI.
son - The metal master discs produced from mothers discs in the replication process. Fathers or sons are used in molds to stamp discs.
stamping - The process of replicating optical discs such as cds by injecting liquid plastic into a mold containing a stamper (father or son). Also (inaccurately) called cd mastering.
SVCD - Super Video Compact Disc. MPEG-2 video on CD. Used primarily in Asia.
TOC Acronym for Table Of Contents, the index in the CD Lead-in that holds the location of each CD track.
UDF Bridge - A combination of UDF and ISO 9660 file system formats that provides backward-compatibility with ISO 9660 readers while allowing full use of the UDF standard.
UDF - Universal Disc Format. A standard developed by the Optical Storage Technology Association designed to create a practical and usable subset of the ISO/IEC 13346 recordable, random-access file system and volume structure format.
Video CD - An extension of CD based on MPEG-1 video and audio. Allows playback of near-VHS-quality video on a Video CD player, CD-i player, or computer with MPEG decoding capability.
White Book - The document from Sony, Philips, and JVC, begun in 1993 that extended the Red Book compact disc format to include digital video in MPEG-1 format. Commonly called Video CD.
WORM Acronym for Write Once Read Many. This is a term applied to drives like CD-R, which can write data to a disc only once.
XVCD - A non-standard variation of VCD. 

Yellow Book - The document produced in 1985 by Sony and Philips that extended the Red Book compact disc format to include digital data for use by a computer. Commonly called CD-ROM.

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